Birth and blessings
2nd Imam after Imam Ali(a.s.) was his son Imam Hasan(a.s.),
the son of the mistress of the women of the worlds, Bibi
Fatima(s.a.), daughter of Prophet Muhammad(pbuh&hf).
Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s kunya was Abu Muhammad. He was born
in Medina, on the night of the 15th day of Ramadan,
three years after the hijra (624 AD).
When Imam Hasan(a.s.) was born, the Prophet(pbuh&hf)
took him and said the adhan (call to prayer) in his
right ear, and said the iqama (words similar to the
adhan) in his left ear. Then he sacrificed a ram for him
(in the ceremony of aqiqa). Then he shaved his hair. He
(i.e., the Prophet(pbuh&hf)) gave silver equal to his
hair. So the weight of Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s hair was a
dirham and some of silver. Then he ordered his hair to
perfumed. So the aqiqa and giving alms as equal as the
weight of hair have become Sunna (an act of the
Bibi Fatima(s.a.) brought her two sons, Imam Hasan(a.s.)
and Imam Hussain(a.s.) to the Apostle of God(pbuh&hf) at
the time when he was suffering from the sickness from
which he died. "Apostle of God," she said, "these are
your two (grand) sons. Give them something as an
inheritance". "As for Hasan," he replied, "he has my
form and my nobility. As for Hussain, he has my
generosity and my bravery."
al-Sayyid, al-Zaki, al-Mujtaba, al-Taqi.
Imam Hasan(a.s.) married Umm Ishaq bint (the daughter
of) Talha b. `Ubayd Allah, Hafsa bint (the daughter of)
'Abd al-Rahman b. Abu Bakr, Hind bint (the daughter of)
Suhayl b. `Amru, and Ju'da bint (the daughter of ) al-Ash'ath
b. Qays, whom Mu'awiya tempted to kill Imam Hasan(a.s.).
So she killed him with poison.
Imam Hasan(a.s.) had fifteen children, both male and
female: Zayd, Imam Hasan(a.s.), `Amru, al-Qasim, `Abd
Allah, `Abd al-Rahman, Imam Hasan(a.s.) al-Athram, and
Talha, Umm Imam Hasan(a.s.), Umm al-Husayn, Fatima, Umm
Salama, Ruqayya, Umm `Abd Allah, and Fatima.
one was more like the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless
him and his family, than Imam Hasan(a.s.) in form,
manner, and nobility.
Imam Hasan(a.s.) has been describe as : "He had a white,
reddish face. He had black eyes, smooth cheeks, thick
beard, and curly, plentiful hair. His neck was as white
as a jug of silver. His body was good. He had large
shoulders, and big fleshy bones. He was of medium
height; neither long nor short. He was handsome; the
best of all people in face".
Imam Hasan(a.s.) performed the hajj on foot twenty-five
times. When he mentioned death, he wept. When he
mentioned the grave, he wept. When he mentioned the
resurrection, he wept. When he mentioned crossing the
sirat (a kind of bridge which only the righteous can
cross on the road to Paradise), he wept. When he
mentioned the standing before Allah(swt), he fainted.
When he mentioned Paradise and Fire, he shock as the
sick person did. So he asked Allah(swt) to make him
enter Paradise and to protect him from Fire.
When Imam Hasan(a.s.) performed an ablution for prayers,
he shock all over and his face became pale. He gave
people from his property twice in the way of Allah(swt).
He mentioned Allah(swt) in all conditions whether
pleasant or otherwise.
They (the historians) said: "He (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) was
the best of all people in worshipping Allah(swt) and
refraining from the life in this world."
Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s ethics were excellent examples for
people. So everyone respected him. Everyone loved him
when he associated with him. When his friend or his
enemy heard him talking or delivering a speech, he was
sorry that he (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) would end his talking
or his speech.
Muhammad b. Ishaq said: "After Allah's Apostle, may
Allah bless him and his family, no one had a high social
position as Imam Hasan(a.s.) had. (Mats) were spread out
at the door of his house. When he came out and sat, the
street was over crowded. So no one of Allah's creatures
could pass to show respect for him. When he knew that,
he stood up and entered his house. So the people could
Although Imam Hasan(a.s.) had a high social rank, he was
kind to people. One day he passed by poor persons. The
poor persons were sitting on the ground. There were
pieces of bread before them. They were picking up the
pieces of bread and eating them. When they saw Imam
Hasan(a.s.) they said to him: "Son of the Apostle of
Allah, come to lunch!" So he dismounted his camel and
said: "Indeed, Allah does not love the proud." He began
eating with them. Then he invited them and gave them
food and clothes.
following are some examples of Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s
generosity: A man came to him and asked him for a need.
He (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) said to the man: "Write your need
on a piece of paper and submit it to me." The man
submitted his need to him. He (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) doubled
the man's need. So some of those who were sitting with
Imam Hasan(a.s.) said to him: "Son of the Apostle of
Allah, the blessing of the piece of paper was great for
the man." So Imam Hasan(a.s.) said: "Its blessing for us
is greater, for Allah has made us appropriate for doing
good. Do you not know that doing good should be
optional, namely without request. As for him whom you
give after the request, you give him after he has lost
face. He may spend his night restless and sleepless. He
rocks between despair and hope. He does not know whether
he will face a sad answer or a glad success. He comes to
you while he shakes all over and his heart is afraid (of
you). Then if you met his need through losing face, that
(losing face) would be greater than what he has obtained
from your favor."
Imam Hasan(a.s.), gave a poet some money. So one of
those who were sitting with him said to him: "Glory be
to Allah! Do you give the poet who disobeys the Merciful
(Allah) and tells lies?" Imam Hasan(a.s.), peace be on
him, said: "Servant of Allah, the best of your money is
what you spend to protect your dignity. It is an act of
kindness to avoid the evil."
Bedouin came to Imam Hasan(a.s.) and asked him for a
need. So Imam Hasan(a.s.) said: "Give him all the money
in the safe." There were twenty thousand dirhams in the
safe. All the money was given to the Bedouin, so he
said: "My master, do you not let me tell you about my
need and praise you?" Imam Hasan(a.s.) began saying: Our
gifts are many, The hopeful enjoy them, Our selves give
generously before the request, For fear of losing face.
day Imam Hasan(a.s.) saw a black boy. The black boy was
eating a piece of bread and giving a piece of bread to
his dog. So Imam Hasan(a.s.) said to him: "What has made
you do this?" "I feel shame of my dog when I eat and do
not feed him," answered the black boy. Then Imam
Hasan(a.s.) said to him: "Do not leave your place till I
come to you." At that moment Imam Hasan(a.s.) went to
the black boy's master. He bought the black boy and the
wall (the garden) where he lived. He freed the black boy
and made him possess the wall.
Imam Hasan(a.s.) is the Lord of the youth of Heaven. He
was one of the two persons in whom the progeny of the
Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family,
was limited. He was one of the four persons through whom
the Prophet(pbuh&hf) made the contest of prayer with the
Christians of Najran. He was one of the five persons
whom the Prophet(pbuh&hf) covered with his cloak. He was
one of the twelve Imams whose obedience Allah(swt) made
incumbent on people. He was among those who were
purified from sins as the Qur'an says. He was among
those whose love Allah(swt) made reward for the message.
He was among those whom the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf)
made one of the two valuable things (thaqalayn). Thus
whoever cleaves to them does not go astray. He was the
plant of the sweet basil of the Apostle of
Allah(pbuh&hf). The Prophet(pbuh&hf) loved him and asked
Allah(swt) to love those who love him.
Imam Hasan(a.s.)'s Succession to the Caliphate and his
Imam Hasan(a.s.) was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of
Imam Ali(a.s.) over his family, his children and his
followers. He bequeathed him to look after his position
and (the position of) his taxes (sadaqat) and he wrote
him a covenant (of succession) which is well-known. His
testamentary trusteeship is obvious in terms of the
outlines of religion, the essential characteristic of
wisdom and good-breeding. A great number of scholars
have reported this trusteeship and many of the men of
understanding have realised the truth of this through
his (attitude to) the world.
When Imam Ali(a.s.) died, Imam Hasan(a.s.) addressed the
people. He reminded them of his right (to authority).
The followers of his father pledged allegiance to him in
terms of fighting those he fought and making peace with
those with whom he made peace. He assumed the succession
in the best manner though the time of his succession was
short. Also he made a Peace Treaty with Mu'awiya on the
15th of Jamadi al-Awwal in the year 41 A.H., according
to the most correct reports. So he was able to protect
the religion and to spare the blood of the believers. In
the Peace Treaty, he followed the teachings, which he
reported on the authority of his father on the authority
of his grandfather, may Allah bless him and his family.
Apparently, his succession was seven months and twenty
After the Peace Treaty had been concluded, Imam
Hasan(a.s.) came back to Medina to stay there. So his
house became as a second haram (a sacred sanctuary) for
people to visit. Through these two sacred places (Imam
Hasan(a.s.)'s house and Medina), Imam Hasan(a.s.),
became the rise of guidance. He was the stronghold of
knowledge and shelter of Muslims. Meanwhile there were
many knowledgeable people all around him. Anyhow such
knowledgeable people were the students of Imam
Hussain(a.s.). So they learned knowledge from him and
reported it on his authority. Allah(swt) granted Imam
Hasan(a.s.) plentiful knowledge and a high social
position in the hearts of Muslims. Thus he (Imam
Hasan(a.s.)) was able to guide the community, to lead
Muslims spiritually, to correct the Islamic beliefs, and
to unify the people of monotheism.
Imam Hasan(a.s.) was given poison several times. When
Imam Hasan(a.s.) felt the danger in the last attempt, he
said to his brother Imam Hussain(a.s.): "My brother, I
am leaving you and meeting my Lord. I have been given
poison to drink, and have spewed my liver into the
basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from
where I have been made a subject to this deceitful
action. I will oppose him before Allah, the Great and
Almighty." Then he said: "Bury me with my grand father,
the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf). For I am worthier of him
and his family' (than others). If they prevent you from
doing so, then I make you swear by the relation which
Allah(swt) has made close to you and by the blood
relation to the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf) not to shed
even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out)
my command, till we meet the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf)
to oppose the people before him and to tell him about
what we have suffered from them."
Then Imam Hasan(a.s.) made his testamentary bequests to
his family and his children. He gave Imam Hussain(a.s.)
his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the
faithful (Imam Ali(a.s.)) had bequeathed to him when he
had made him his successor, had declared him worthy to
occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shi'a (his
followers) that he (Imam Hasan(a.s.)) was his successor.
Then Imam Hasan(a.s.) died on the 28th of Safar in the
year 50 A.H.
al-Faraj al-Isfahani said: "Mu'awiya wanted the people
to pledge allegiance to his son Yazid. However, the
existence of Imam Hasan(a.s.) b. 'Ali and of Sa'd b. Abu
Waqqas troubled him very much. So he gave them poison to
drink, and they died of it."
abominable disasters of this kind shook the conscience
of the Muslim countries. So there were various
revolutions throughout history. In this connection
Allah(swt), the Exalted, says: "And they who act
unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they
shall turn back."
Sibt b. al-Jawzi reported on the authority of b. Sa'd on
the authority of al-Waqidi, who said: "When Imam
Hasan(a.s.) was about to die, he said: `Bury me beside
my father.' He meant the Apostle of Allah(pbuh&hf).
However, banu (the sons of ) Umayya and Marwan b.
al-Hakam and Said b. al-As, who was the governor over
Medina, prevented him." Ibn Sa'd said: "Among them was
`A'isha, who said: `No one is buried beside the Apostle
al-Faraj al-Amawi al-Isfahani reported on the authority
of Yahya b. Imam Hasan(a.s.), who said: "I heard Ali b.
Tahir b. Zayd say: `When they wanted to bury Imam
Hasan(a.s.), she (`A'isha) mounted a mule and asked the
help of banu (the sons of) Umayya, Marwan, those who
were there from them (banu Umayya) and from their
servants. So someone said: `One day (she was) on a mule,
and one day (she was) on a camel.'"
Al-Mas'udi has mentioned that `A'isha mounted a gray
mule and led the Umayyads to declare a second battle
against the members of the House (Ahl al-Bayt(a.s.)). He
(al-Mas'udi) said: "So al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abu Bakr
came to her (`A'isha) and said: `Aunt, we, have not
washed our heads since the Battle of the Camel. Do you
want people to call this day the Battle of the Gray
Mule?' So she came back."
Many people gathered together with Imam Hussain(a.s.)
and said to him: "Leave us with the children of Marwan.
By Allah(swt), they are, with us, nothing but an itching
of the head." Imam Hussain(a.s.) said: `By Allah(swt),
if there had been no injunction to me from Imam
Hasan(a.s.) to prevent bloodshed and that I should not
even pour blood into a cupping-glass in (carrying out)
his command, you would have known how the swords of
Allah(swt) would have taken their toll from you. You
have broken the agreement which was made between you and
us. You have ignored the conditions which we made with
you for ourselves." Here Imam Hussain(a.s.) reminded
them of the conditions of the Peace Treaty.
Then they went on with (the body of) Imam Hasan(a.s.)
and they buried him in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi beside
his grandmother, Fatima bint-e-Asad(a.s.) bin Hashim bin
his book `al-Isaba', Ahmad Shahab al-Din al-`Asqalani
said: Dawud b. Sinan informed us: Tha'laba b. Abu Malik
told us: "I (Tha'laba b. Abu Malik) saw Imam Hasan(a.s.)
on the day when he died and was buried in (the cemetery
of) al-Baqi`. I saw that if a needle had been thrown
away in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi`, it (the needle)
would have not fallen but on the head of a person."